The establishment of the production process and the management office is the first important organizational and administrative management activity that every organization has to go through. The old Kaizen Agile principles are still the basis for the creation of a solid production structure.
The processes and management of the organization impose the rules of all other product departments and units, creates and adopt project management processes, processes for quality control and inspection and adaptation of end products. Reference: Trends and features of modern management
Management is a tool for production
Management is a toolkit and a means by which engineering and economic knowledge are used in industrial practice to optimally combine in space and time the elementary factors of production to achieve the set overall efficiency of the transformation process. In literature, the optimal combination of space and time of elemental production factors is perceived as the organization of production. The organization of production is specified as the organization of construction and organization of the production process. Reference: Emergence and development of Industrial and Production management
The spatial construction of the process means its structuring in space and the sustainable anchoring of the production processes for individual production units and the formation of the production structure of the industrial enterprise. Therefore, the spatial organization of the production process is a fundamental principle for its rational organization.
The rational running of the production process over time is the second basic principle of the organization of production. The third basic principle of the organization of the production process is functional. On a functional basis, the production process is differentiated into basic, ancillary, additional and lateral processes. Further, functional differentiation is carried out on the basis of the developed technology for the manufacture of the products.
Technology is an original dispositional factor that creates the conditions and prerequisites for optimal combination in space and time of elementary production factors, ie. of the organization of production.
Technology planning is based on a temporary principle and aims to determine the length of the production cycle for the preparation and preparation of industrial products. The technological planning determines the sequence and duration of implementation of the individual technological processes.
The technological design reflects the consideration of the spatial factor and is reflected in the detailed development of the technological processes for the processing of the parts and the preparation of the products. The development of detailed technological processes reflects the available production capacities of the spatially located production units. Technology planning reflects a temporary aspect. Depending on the marketing strategy adopted, it enables technological innovation and expansion of production capacities. The technological design focuses on the spatial element and maximum load on the available production capacities of the production units.
Technological production design combines in one functional principle the rules of the spatial construction of production processes and the ways of combining them in time and the type of forecasting between individual jobs and units. The functional principle requires the observance of such technological rules that allow the selection, development, and implementation of such production technology that will contribute to the realization of the set overall efficiency of the transformation process.
Company planning is based on the technology chosen and in accordance with the interim principal is subdivided into strategic, tactical and operational.
All elements of company planning (as the main function of management) are aimed at creating or improving the already established production organization. Reference: Emergency and development of scientific management in the USA
The basic principles of the organization are:
Along with the basic principles, we should note the derivatives:
Creating technological processes by developers
The specialization of manufacturing requires developers to develop such technological processes that would secure for certain jobs the performance of the same or related technological operations. This requires minimizing the diversity of technological processes and operations. It is achieved through the development of structural and technological unification and standardization and improvement of technological planning, design, and technological production design. The level of specialization is determined by the coefficient of specialization.
Proportionality requires developers and production organizers to reconcile the lengths of technological processes and operations in their commute to individual jobs with a view to avoiding bottlenecks “, ie the disparities in production capacity of individual jobs and units. This principle should be observed, both for the basic production processes and for auxiliary, lateral and auxiliary.
Parallelism requires, in principle, the parallel movement of material resources (parts and assembly units) and the simultaneous processing of eponymous operations at different workplaces.
Linearity requires developers and the organization to implement a production convergence of technological operations and technological phases in order to exclude back and cross movements of parts and work units.
Continuity in the organization of production requires the movement of material resources in the course of the technological process without waiting and lying on individual jobs and units.
Kaizen principle of rhythm in production processes
One of Kaizen’s most important production principles is rhythm.
The following types of rhythm are distinguished.
The rhythm of production preparation requires the same amount of products to be produced during the various planning periods.
The rhythm of Kaizen technological processes and operations requires the same amount of technological processes (operations) to be performed during the various planning periods. Reference: Kaizen, BVOP
The uniformity of production requires the presence of the other two forms and means that the industrial enterprise loads its production capacities evenly and, during the different reporting periods, produces production in accordance with the available production capacities.
Creating a management structure
Creating a management structure and production processes require the allocation of departments, workshops, machinery and storage areas within the manufacturing enterprise. Creating a management office aims to support these components in a way that ensures a normal workflow or an appropriate way of performing a service.
Basic models for the interior layout of the manufacturing plant.
In making such a decision, we should have the following information in mind:
Data for the purpose of the system in terms of its performance and flexibility
Evaluation of demand for goods and services from the system
Operational requirements for the number of operations and the amount of product processed between departments and work centers
Available space within the enterprise itself
Before addressing these issues, it may be useful to note the features of a good facility located in an enterprise, which are listed below:
Production operations and indirect services
- Linear production model
- Easy to forecast time and production for production
- Lack of material shortage
- Outdoor production sites where everyone can see what’s going on
- Critical operations should be controlled by management
- Teamwork between departments
- The order in which materials are processed and stored
- Lack of unnecessary material handling
- Easily adaptable to changing production systems
- Easy-to-understand service delivery models
- Suitable waiting conditions
- Easy communication with customers
- Easy customer monitoring
- Open output and entry points, with appropriate recording capabilities
- Departments and processes so arranged that customers only see what they need to see
- The balance between waiting and service areas
- Minimal movement of materials and personnel
- High sales volume relative to the area of the facility
Just in time Agile concept
The models by which the departments are arranged at the plant are determined by the general model of operation and consist of three main types of product placement, process siting, and fixed siting as well as one mixed type, group technology or cellular siting. We can also refer to the Just in time Agile concept as a way of deploying plant facilities. In this section, we will look at all variations of placement patterns except fixed placement.
Product placement is one where the equipment or work processes are arranged in accordance with the sequential steps of production. If the equipment is intended for the continuous production of a narrow product line, this type of placement is usually called a product line or assembly line.
The current workshop refers to a production system that was arranged to create core products faster and more easily. The product range is wider than the product lines and the equipment is less specialized. Production is carried out in batches, of each type of commodity, instead of mixed.
The process layout, similar facility or functions are grouped together, for example, all lathes are located in one zone and all marking machines in another. A workpiece is then machined and then moved, in accordance with the established sequence of operations, from zone to zone, where the respective machines are located for each operation. This type of placement is typical of hospitals, for example, where we find areas dedicated to a specific type of care, such as a maternity home, pediatrics, or ambulance.
Deployment-group technology groups different machines into work centers (or cells) to process products that have similar shapes and process requirements. This type of deployment is close to the process deployment, in which cells are designed to perform a specific set of processes, and is similar to product deployment, in which cells are intended for a limited set of products.
Precise timing – can be of two types: assembly line similar to the assembly line and process layout. In the linear layout, equipment and workshops are arranged sequentially. In process deployment, the focus is on simplifying material processing and creating standard routes that connect the system to material movement.
Due to its large size or weight, the product stays in one place when fixed. Production equipment moves to the product instead of the other way around. Shipyards, construction sites and offices of professors are examples of this model.
Many manufacturing facilities are a combination of two types of layout. For example, a site may be arranged processively while another site may be arranged. Whole plants are also common, arranged in accordance with the total product flow (production, intermediate assembly, and assembly), combined with process placement within production and product placement in the assembly department.
Product placement is constantly changing due to the dynamic nature of the indoor and outdoor production environment. As the search changes, so do the placement. As technology changes, so do the location.